Indian Journal of ECMO

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VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 3-4 ( July-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Review Paper

Evolution of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Part 3 – The Stepping Stones to Success in the History of Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Keywords : Brunkhonencko, Cardiopulmonary bypass, Evolution, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, History, John Gibbon, Walton Lillehei

Citation Information : Evolution of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Part 3 – The Stepping Stones to Success in the History of Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Indian J ECMO 2023; 1 (3-4):86-89.

DOI: 10.5005/jaypee-journals-11011-0017

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 12-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


The story of the “Evolution of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)” continues after the previous edition. In the 17th century, Robert Hooke was the first to conceptualize a process similar to ECMO. Many researchers and clinicians worked hard throughout the 19th and 20th centuries to build systems supporting gas exchange over a thin film of blood. Brukhonenko from Russia is worth mentioning as the system he built, called an “autojector” came close to the expectations of replacing the lung with a mechanical gas exchange system. All the experiments so far were on animals till Dr John Gibbon, in 1953, first used the heart–lung machine he made on a case of the atrial septal defect (ASD) for cardiac bypass. In 1954, Dr Walton Lillehei introduced the practice of controlled cross-circulation using a child with his biological parents.

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